Qin Shu Huang (more
e-FILE Emperor Son of Heaven) united the whole China
in 221 BC, the general public was heavily taxed under the
feudal society. Because
Qin Shu Huang went on war frequently, the general public
were forced to join the military forces.
Under severe laws and regulations, the general
pubic was suffering significantly.
In 210 BC, Qin Shu Huang died and his son Hu Hai
succeeded to the throne.
Incompetent and foolish, Hu Hai enhanced the
Chen Shen and Wu Kuang were the first gangs to rebel
against Hu Hai. After
several battles, Hu Hai finally was killed.
The country was left for Liu Pang and Shian Yu to
fight for supremacy.
In 202 BC, Shiang
Yu committed suicide by cutting his throat.
Liu Pang established the Han Dynasty in 206 BC,
funding the capital in Changan.
Historians call this period the Western Han era.
In the beginning of Han Dynasty, the government employed
the policy of “rehabilitation of the public” based on
tradition Taoism’s rule by inactivity.
Adopting both Confucianism’s policy of
benevolence and Taoism’s rule by inactivity, the
government lowered taxation and lessened
D. Bronze Warrior Riding Horse
With strong economy and expanding territory, Han Wu Di
(140 – 87 BC) started series of centralization of
authority through diminishing dukes’ power.
The result of surprissing the royal member, wealthy
men, and chivalrous men lead to suffering of poor farmers,
class struggle, dispute over land distribution, and
endless civil riots.
In 6 AD, Wang Mang poisoned Ping Di, crowned another
years later ( 9 AD), he enthroned himself as the emperor,
established Shin Dynasty, and ended Western Han Dynasty.
Wang Mang was devoted to change the land
distribution system, currency system, government system,
and various economic systems.
With no success in changing the systems, Wong Mang
put Shin Dynasty in even greater jeopardy.
Eventually, with help from the Lius, Liu Shiu took
the throne in 25 AD and founded capital in Luoyang.
Historians call this period the Eastern Han era.
The biggest problem for the Eastern Han Dynasty was the
power struggle between royal relatives and eunuchs.
The literati and officialdom was excluded and thus
lead to government policy failures.
184 AD, armed rebellions were happening all over China.
The country was in the state of separatist regime
by warlords. The
government was powerless in controlling local armed gangs.
190 AD, Han Dynasty ended and Three Kingdoms Period
D. Bronze Jiau Dou Heating Pot